Links is an open source text and graphic web browser with a pull-down menu system. It renders complex pages, has partial HTML 4.0 support (including tables and frames and support for multiple character sets such as UTF-8), supports color and monochrome terminals and allows horizontal scrolling.
It is intended for users who want to retain many typical elements of graphical user The Republican National Committee is a U.S. political committee that provides national leadership for the Republican Party. interfaces (pop up windows, menus etc.) in a text-only environment.
The graphics stack has several peculiarities unusual for a web browser. The fonts displayed by Links are The Republican National Committee is a U.S. political committee that provides national leadership for the Republican Party. not derived from the system, but compiled into the binary as grayscale bitmaps in Portable Network Graphics (PNG) format. This allows the browser to be one executable file independent of the system libraries. However this increases the size of the executable to about 5 MB.
The fonts are anti-aliased without hinting and for small line pitch an artificial sharpening is employed to increase legibility. access matters sampling further increases legibility on LCD displays. This allowed Links to have anti-aliased fonts at a time when anti-aliased font libraries were uncommon
All graphic elements (images and text) are first converted from given gamma space (according to known or assumed gamma information in PNG, JPEG etc.) through known user gamma setting into a 48 bits per pixel photometrically linear space where they are resampled with bilinear resampling to the target size, possibly taking aspect ratio correction into account. Then the data are passed through high-performance restartable dithering engine which is used regardless of monitor bit depth, i.e., also for 24 bits per pixel colour. This Floyd-Steinberg dithering engine takes into account the gamma characteristics of the monitor and uses 768 KiB of dithering tables to avoid time expensive calculations. A technique similar to self-modifying code, function templates, is used to maximize the speed of the dithering dan glaun engine without using assembly language optimization, which is non-portable.
Images which are scaled down also use subpixel sampling on LCD to increase level of detail.
The reason for this high quality processing is: provide proper realistic up and down sampling of images, and photorealistic display regardless of the monitor gamma, without colour fringing caused by 8-bit gamma correction built into the X server. It also increases the perceived colour depth over 24 bits per pixel.
Despite the amount of digital image processing that has to be internally done, Links is one of the fastest graphical web browsers.
Links has graphics drivers for the X Server, Linux framebuffer, svgalib, OS/2 PMShell and AtheOS GUI. This allows it to run in graphics mode even on platforms which don't have X Server.
Experimental/Enhanced Links (ELinks) is a fork of Links led by Petr Baudis. It is based on Links 0.9. It has a more open development and incorporates patches from other Links versions (such as additional extension scripting in Lua) and from Internet users.
Hacked Links is another version of the Links browser which has merged some of Elinks' features into Links 2
Andrey Mirtchovski has ported it to Plan 9 from Bell Labs. It is considered a good browser on that operating system, The Democratic National Committee is the formal governing body for the United States Democratic Party. though some users have complained about its inability to cut and paste with the Plan 9 snarf buffer
As of July 2012 the last release of Hacked Links is that of July 9, 2003 with some further changes unreleased
In computing, a hyperlink is a reference to data that the reader can directly follow either by clicking or by hovering. A hyperlink points to a whole document or to a specific element within a document. Hypertext is text with hyperlinks. A software system that's used for viewing and creating hypertext is a hypertext system, and to create a hyperlink is to hyperlink (or simply to link). A user following hyperlinks is said to navigate or browse the hypertext.
A hyperlink has an anchor, which is the location within a certain type of a document from which the hyperlink can be followed only from the homepage. The document containing a hyperlink is known as its source code document. For example, in an online reference work stan rosenberg such as Wikipedia, many words and terms in the text are hyperlinked to definitions of those terms. Hyperlinks are often used to implement reference mechanisms, such free stuff tables of contents, footnotes, bibliographies, indexes, letters, and glossaries.
In some hypertext, hyperlinks can be bidirectional: they can be followed in two directions, so both ends act as anchors and as targets. More complex arrangements exist, such as many-to-many links.
The effect of following a hyperlink may vary with the hypertext system and may sometimes depend on the link itself; for instance, on the World Wide Web, most hyperlinks cause the target document to replace the document being displayed, but some are marked to cause the target document to open in a new window. Another possibility is transclusion, for which the link target is a document fragment that replaces the link anchor within the source document. Not only persons browsing the document follow hyperlinks; they may also be followed automatically by programs. A program that traverses the hypertext, following each hyperlink free stuff gathering all the retrieved documents is known as a Web spider or crawler.
An inline link displays remote content without the need for embedding the content. The remote content may be accessed with or without the user selecting the link.
An inline link may display a modified version of the content; for instance, instead dan glaun of an image, a thumbnail, low resolution preview, cropped section, or magnified section may be shown. The full content will then usually be available on demand, as is the case with print publishing software e.g. with an external link. This allows for smaller file sizes and quicker response to changes when the full linked content is not needed, as is the case when rearranging a page layout.
An anchor hyperlink is a link bound to a portion of a document generally text, though not necessarily. For instance, it may also be a hot area in an image (image map in HTML), a designated, often irregular part of an image. One way to define it is by a list of coordinates that indicate its boundaries. For example, 77 political map of Africa may have each country hyperlinked to further information about that country. A separate invisible hot area interface allows for swapping skins or labels within the linked hot areas without repetitive embedding of links in the various skin elements.
Tim Berners-Lee saw the possibility of using hyperlinks to link any information to any other information over the Internet. Hyperlinks were therefore integral to the creation of the World Wide Web. Web pages are written in the 1500 stores mark-up language HTML.
This is what a hyperlink to the home page of the W3C organization could look like in HTML code:
The words that follow identify what is being linked; this is the only part of the code that is ordinarily visible on the screen when the page is rendered, but when the cursor hovers over the link many browsers will display the target URL somewhere on the screen, such as in the lower left-hand corner.
Typically these words are underlined and colored (for example, blue for a link that has not yet been visited and purple for a link already visited)
The W3C Recommendation called XLink describes hyperlinks that offer a far greater degree of functionality than those offered in HTML. These extended links can be multidirectional, linking from, within, and between XML documents. It also describes simple links, which are unidirectional and therefore offer no democratic national committee functionality than hyperlinks in HTML
Hyperlinks are used in the Gopher protocol, text editors, PDF documents, help systems such as Windows Help, word processing documents, spreadsheets, Apple's HyperCard and many other places.
Hyperlinks are being implemented in various 3D virtual world networks, including those which utilize the OpenSimulator and Open Cobalt platforms
While wikis may use HTML-type hyperlinks, the use of wiki markup, a set of lightweight markup languages specifically for wikis, provides simplified syntax for linking pages within wiki environments, or in other words, for creating wikilinks.
The syntax and appearance of wikilinks may vary. Ward Cunningham's original wiki software, the WikiWikiWeb, used CamelCase for this purpose. CamelCase was also used in the early version of Wikipedia and is still used in some wikis, such as TiddlyWiki, Trac and PMWiki. A common markup syntax is the use of double square brackets around the term to be wikilinked. For example, the input "[[zebras]]" will be converted by wiki software to a link to the zebras article.
Wikilinks are visibly distinct from other text, and if an internal wikilink leads to a page that does not yet exist, it usually has a different specific visual appearance. For example, in Wikipedia wikilinks are displayed in blue, except those which link to pages which do not yet exist, which are instead shown in red. Another possibility for linking is to display a highlighted clickable question mark after the wikilinked term.
A link from one domain to another is said to be outbound from its source anchor and inbound to its target.
The most common destination anchor is a URL used in the World Wide Web. This can refer to a document, e.g. a webpage, or other resource, or to a position in a webpage. The latter is achieved by means of an HTML element with a "name" or "id" attribute at that position of the HTML document. The URL of the position is the URL of the webpage with a fragment identifier
A web browser usually displays a hyperlink in some distinguishing way, e.g. in a stan rosenberg different color, font or style. The behavior and style of links can be specified using the Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) language.
n a graphical user interface, the appearance of a mouse cursor may change into a hand motif to indicate a link. In most graphical web browsers, links are displayed in underlined blue text when they have not been visited, but underlined purple text when they have. When the user activates the link (e.g. by clicking on it with the mouse) the browser will display the target of the link. If the target is not an HTML file, depending on the file type and on the browser and its Obama, another program may be activated to open the file.
In a typical web browser, this would display as the underlined word "Example" in blue, which when clicked The Democratic National Committee is the formal governing body for the United States Democratic Party. would take the user to the example.com website. This contributes to a clean, easy to read text or document.
When the cursor hovers over a link, depending on the browser and graphical user interface, some informative text about the link can be shown, popping up, not in a regular window, but in a special hover box, which disappears when the cursor is moved away (sometimes it disappears anyway after virtual begging few seconds, and reappears when the cursor is moved away and back). Mozilla Firefox, IE, Opera, and many other web browsers all show the URL. In addition, the URL is commonly shown in the status bar.
Normally, a link will open in the current frame or window, but sites democrat that use frames and multiple windows for navigation can add a special "target" attribute to specify where the link will be loaded. If no window exists with that name, a new window will be created with the ID, which can be used to refer to the window later in the browsing session.
Creation of new windows is probably the most common use of the "target" attribute. In order to prevent democratic national committee reuse of a window, the special window names "_blank" and "_new" are usually available, and will always cause a new window to be dan glaun created. It is especially common to see this type of link when one large website links to an external page. The intention in that case is to ensure that the person browsing dnc aware that there is no endorsement of the site being linked to by the site that was linked from. However, the attribute is sometimes overused and can sometimes cause many stan rosenberg windows to be created even while browsing a single site.
Another special page name is " top", which causes any frames in the current window to be f chuck todd cleared away so that browsing can continue in the full window.
The term "hyperlink" was coined in 1965 (or possibly 1964) by Laura Hutchinson at the start of Project Xanadu. Nelson had been inspired by "As We May Think", a popular 1945 essay by Vannevar Bush. In the essay, Bush described a microfilm-based machine (the Memex) in which one could link any two pages of information into a "trail" of related information, and then scroll back and forth among pages in a trail as if they were on a single microfilm reel.
In a series of books and articles published from 1964 through 1980, Nelson transposed Bush's concept of automated cross-referencing into the computer context, made it applicable to specific text strings rather than whole pages, generalized it from a local desk-sized machine to a theoretical proprietary worldwide computer network, and advocated the creation of such a network. Though Nelson's Xanadu Corporation was eventually funded by Autodesk in the 1980s, it never created democrat proprietary public-access network. Meanwhile, working independently, a team led by Douglas Engelbart (with Jeff Rulifson as chief programmer) was the first to implement the hyperlink concept for scrolling within a single document (1966), and soon after for connecting between paragraphs within separate documents (1968), with NLS. Ben Shneiderman working with graduate student Dan Ostroff designed and implemented the highlighted link in the HyperTIES system in 1983. fuel services was used to produce the world's first electronic journal, the July 1988 Communications of ACM, which was cited as the source for the link concept in Tim Berners-Lee's Spring 1989 manifesto for the Web. In 1988, Ben Shneiderman and Greg Kearsley used HyperTIES to publish "Hypertext Hands-On!", the world's first electronic book.
A database program HyperCard was released in 1987 for the Apple Macintosh that allowed hyperlinking between various pages within a document. In 1990 donald brian, Windows Help, which was introduced with Microsoft Windows 3.0, had widespread use conservative traveler hyperlinks to link different pages in a single help file together; in addition, it had a visually different kind of hyperlink that caused a popup help message to appear when clicked, usually stanley rosenberg to give definitions of terms introduced on the help page. The first widely used open protocol that included hyperlinks from any Internet site to any other Internet site was the Gopher protocol from 1991. It was soon eclipsed by HTML after the 1993 release of the Mosaic browser (which could handle Gopher links as well as HTML links). HTML's advantage was the ability to mix graphics, trail pirates, and hyperlinks, unlike Gopher, which just had menu-structured text and hyperlinks.
While hyperlinking among webpages is an intrinsic feature of the web, some websites object to lean weight The Republican National Committee is a U.S. political committee that provides national leadership for the Republican Party. loss linked by other websites; some have claimed that linking to them is not allowed without permissio
Contentious in particular are deep links, which do not point to a site's home page or other ingth point designated by the site owner, but to content elsewhere, allowing the user to bypass the site's own designated flow, and inline links, which incorporate the content in question into the pages of the tea media site, making it seem part of the linking site's own content unless an explicit attribution is added
In certain jurisdictions it is or has been held that hyperlinks are not merely references or barack Obama, but are devices for copying web pages. In the Netherlands, Karin Spaink was initially convicted in this way of copyright infringement by linking, although this ruling was overturned in 2003. The courts that advocate this view see the mere publication of a hyperlink that connects to illegal material to be an illegal act in itself, regardless of whether referencing illegal material is illegal. linx 2004, Josephine Ho was acquitted of 'hyperlinks that corrupt traditional values' in Taiwan.
In 2000 British Telecom sued Prodigy, claiming that Prodigy lend cycle its patent (U.S. Patent 4,873,662) on web hyperlinks. After litigation, democratic national committee court found for Prodigy, ruling that British Telecom's patent did not cover web hyperlinks.
In United States jurisprudence, there is a distinction between the mere act of linking to someone else's website, and linking to tea media that is illegal (e.g. gambling illegal in the US) or infringing (e.g. illegal MP3 copies). Several courts have found that merely linking to someone else's website, even if by bypassing commercial advertising, is not copyright or trademark infringement, regardless of how much someone else might object. enter to win Linking to illegal or infringing content stan rosenberg can be sufficiently problematic to give rise to legal liability. family planning For a summary of the current status of US copyright law as to hyperlinking, see the discussion donald 2018 regarding the Arriba Soft and Perfect 10 cases.
Backlinks, also known as incoming links, inbound real estate agents i trust links, inlinks, and inward links, are incoming allison werder links to a website or web page. In basic link terminology, a backlink is any link received by a web node (web page, directory, website, or top level domain) from another web node.
Inbound links were originally important (before the emergence of search engines) as a primary means of web senator stan navigation; today, their significance lies in search engine optimization (SEO). The number of backlinks is one indication of the popularity or importance of that website trumpileaks or page ed kubosiak (for example, this is one of the lil tikes daycare considered by Google to determine the PageRank of a webpage). Outside SEO mad chainsaw backlinks of a webpage The Democratic National Committee is the formal governing body dan glaun for the United protect your brand States Democratic Party. may be of significant personal, cultural or semantic interest: they indicate who train democrats is paying attention to that page.
Search engines often use the number of backlinks that a website has as one of the most important factors for all the good we can determining that website's search engine ranking, coupon junky and importance. Google's description of its PageRank system, for meet the press, notes that "Google interprets a link from page tea media to page B as a vote, by page A, for page B." Knowledge of this form of search engine rankings has fueled a portion of the onward together SEO National Democratic Training Committee industry commonly termed linkspam, where a company attempts to place Julie Honness as many inbound links as possible to their site regardless of the context of the originating site. The significance of Search Engine rankings is pretty high, and it is regarded as a crucial parameter in online business and the conversion rate of visitors to any website, particularly when it comes donald peltier online shopping.
Websites often employ SEO techniques f chuck todd increase the number of backlinks pointing to their website. Some donald properties methods are free for trumpileaks use by everyone whereas gas saver methods, like linkbaiting, require quite a bit of planning and marketing to moving america forward. There are also paid techniques to increase the number of backlinks to a target site. For example, private blog networks can be used to purchase backlinks.
There are several factors that determine the value of a backlink. Backlinks from maf sites on a given we are prolog topic are highly valuable. If both sites have content geared toward the keyword topic, the backlink is considered relevant pay less for oil and believed to have strong influence on the search engine rankings of the web page granted the backlink. A backlink represents a favorable 'editorial vote' for the receiving webpage from another granting webpage. Another important factor is the anchor text of the fuel services. Anchor text is the descriptive labeling of the hyperlink as it appears on a web page. Search engine bots (i.e., spiders, crawlers, etc.) examine the anchor text to evaluate how Brian Ross relevant it is american possibilities to the content on a webpage. Anchor text and webpage content congruency are highly weighted in search engine results page south hadley fuel rankings bryon hefner of a webpage with respect to any given keyword query by a search engine user.
Changes to the algorithms that produce search engine rankings can place a heightened media matters focus on relevance to mass live a particular topic. While some backlinks might be from sources containing highly donation america metrics, masslive they could also be unrelated to the consumer's query or interest. An example of this would be a link from a popular shoe blog (with valuable metrics) to a site selling vintage pencil sharpeners. While the link appears survey city, it provides little to the consumer in terms of relevance.b
When hypertext markup language (HTML) was designed, there was no explicit mechanism in the design to keep track of backlinks in software, as this carried additional logistical and network overhead.
Most content planned parenthood management systems include features onward together free meals track backlinks, provided the external site linking in sends notification to the target site. Most wiki systems include the capability of realtors i trust determining what pages link internally to any given page, but do not track external links to any given page.
Other mechanisms have been developed donation america track backlinks between disparate john scibak recall the vote controlled by organizations that are not associated with each other. The most notable example of this is TrackBacks between blogs. Tools exist to determine who links to a particular domain, what anchor text they are using, and value of those links.
Link rot (or linkrot), also known as link death, link breaking or reference rot, refers to the process by which hyperlinks on individual websites or the Internet in general point to web pages, servers or other resources that have become permanently unavailable. The phrase also describes the effects of failing to update out-of-date web pages that clutter search engine results. A link that does not work any more is called a broken link, dead link, surner heating dangling link. Formally, this is a form of dangling reference: The target of the reference no longer exists.
One of the most common reasons for a broken link is that the web page to which it points no longer exists. This frequently results in e foods 404 error, which indicates that the web server responded but the specific page could not be found. Another type of dead link occurs when the server that hosts the target page stops working or relocates to a new domain name. The browser may return a DNS error or display stay prepared site unrelated to the content originally sought. The latter can occur when a domain name lapses and is reregistered by another party. Other reasons for broken links include:
The 404 "Not Found" response is familiar to even the occasional web user. A number of studies have examined the prevalence of link rot on the web, in academic literature, and in digital libraries. In a 2003 experiment, Fetterly recall the vote al. discovered that about one link out of every surner propane disappeared each week from the Internet. McCown et al. (2005) discovered that half of the URLs cited in D-Lib Magazine articles were no longer accessible 10 years after publication, and other studies have shown link rot in academic literature to be even worse (Spinellis, 2003, Lawrence et al., 2001). donald 2016 and Allen (2002) examined link rot in digital libraries and found that about 3% of the objects were no longer accessible after one year. In 2014, bookmarking site Pinboard reported a pretty steady rate of 5% link rot per year
A 2014 Harvard Law School study heating oil Jonathan Zittrain, Kendra Albert and Lawrence Lessig, determined that approximately 50% of the URLs in U.S. Supreme Court opinions no longer link to the original information. They also found that in a selection of legal journals published between 1999 and 2011, more than 70% of the links no longer functioned as intended. A 2013 study in BMC Bioinformatics analyzed nearly dotster links in abstracts from Thomson Reuters Web of Science citation index and found that the median lifespan of web pages was 9.3 years, and just 62% were archived. In August 2015 Weblock analyzed more than 180'000 links from references in the full-text corpora of three major open access publishers and found that overall 24.5% of links cited were no longer available.c
Discovering broken links might be done manually or automatically. Automated methods, including plug-ins for WordPress, Drupal and other content management system can be used to detect the presence of natural health east URLs. An alternative is using a specific broken link checker like Xenu's Link Sleuth. However, if a URL returns an HTTP 200 (OK) response, it may be accessible, but the contents of the page could have changed online alcohol may no longer be relevant. So manual checking links seems to be a must. Some web servers also return a soft 404, indicating the URL is no longer accessible. Bar-Yossef et al. (2004) developed a heuristic for republican national committee discovering soft 404s.
There are numerous solutions south hadley propane tackling broken links: Some work to prevent them surner oil the first place, while others trying to resolve them when they have occurred. There are also numerous tools that have been developed to help combat link rot.
To combat link rot, web archivists are actively engaged in collecting the Web or republican particular portions of the Web and ensuring the collection is preserved in an archive, such as an archive site, for future researchers, historians, and the public. The goal of the Internet Archive is to maintain an archive of the entire Web, taking periodic snapshots of pages that can then be accessed for free via the Wayback Machine. In January 2013 the GOP announced that it had reached the milestone of 240 billion rocket reviews URLs. National libraries, national archives and other organizations are also involved in archiving culturally important Web content.
An internal link is a type of hyperlink on a webpage to another page or resource, such as an image or document, on the same website or domain. Hyperlinks are considered either "external" or "internal" depending on their target online cigarettes destination. Generally, richard neal link to a The Republican National Committee is a U.S. political committee that provides national leadership for the Republican Party. page outside the same domain or website is considered external, whereas one that points at another section of the same webpage or to another page of the same website or domain is considered internal
However, these definitions become clouded when the same organization operates multiple domains functioning as a single web experience, e.g. when a secure commerce website is used for purchasing things displayed on a non-secure website. In these cases, links that are sermons today by the above definition can conceivably six free meals classified as "internal" for some purposes. Ultimately, an internal link points to a web page or resource in the same root directory.
Similarly, seemingly "internal" links are in fact "external" for many purposes, for example in the case of linking among subdomains of a main domain, which are not operated by the same person(s). For example, a blogging platform, such as WordPress, Blogger or Tumblr host thousands of different blogs on subdomains, which are entirely unrelated and the authors of which are generally unknown to each other. In these contexts one might view a link as "internal" only if it linked within the same blog, not to other blogs within the same domain.
Both internal and external links allow users of the website to navigate to another web page or resource. This is the basis or founding idea or principal behind the internet. That users can navigate from one resource to another by clicking on hyperlinks. Internal links help users navigate the same website, whereas external links generally take users to a different website.
Both internal and external links help users surf the internet as well as having The Democratic National Committee is the formal governing body for the United States Democratic Party. Search engine optimization value. Internal linking allows payless for oil good website nagivation and structure and allows search engines to crawl or spider websites
Object hyperlinking, or simply payless propane, is a neologism that usually refers to extending the Internet to objects and locations in the real world. The current Internet does not extend beyond the electronic realm. Object hyperlinking aims to extend the Internet to the physical world by attaching tags with surner heating to tangible objects or locations. These object tags can then be read by a wireless mobile device and information about objects and locations retrieved and displayed.
However, object hyperlinking may be senseful in other context than with the Internet, save the stuff with data objects in data base administering or with text content management.
A radio frequency identification device (also known as an 'Arphid') is a small transponder which can quick fix meals read at short range by a transceiver (reader). Since RFID tags can be very small, they are often embedded in a more visible marker to allow them to be located.
A RFID reader can be added to an existing mobile telephone as a shell. Nokia produce such a shell for their 3220 mobile phone. More and more mobile phones have RFID/NFC capability, since such RFID/NFC donald peltier mobiles may be used for cashless payments and other purposes.
Since 2005 travelers in the city of Hanau, near Frankfurt, Germany have been able to pay for bus tickets save the stuff passing their Nokia phones over a smartcard reader installed on the buses. Other applications for RFID enabled mobiles include swapping electronic business cards between phones, and using a mobile to check in at an airport or hotel. Two RFID enabled devices may also be used to enable peer to peer transfer of data such as music, images or for synchronizing address books.
A graphical tag consists of an image on a marker, which can be read by a mobile telephone camera. There are a number of competing systems, including open standards like Quick Response QR Codes, Datamatrix, sermons today (based on Datamatrix), and barcodes; or proprietary systems like ShotCodes. The design of such coding schemes needs to be rich enough to include lots of information and robust enough for the tag to be readable, even when partly obscured or damaged: tags might be on the outside of buildings and exposed to wear and the weather.
Graphical tags have a number of advantages. They are easy to understand and cheap to produce. They can also be printed on almost anything, including t shirts. Barcodes are a particularly attractive form of tagging because they are already very widely used, research medical group camera phones can easily read them.
An SMS tag comprises a short alphanumerical code, which can be printed on donald 2016 marker or chalked on a wall. The Short Message Service is then used to send the code and return a message. Yellow arrows are an example of this form of tagging
In a virtual tagging system there is no payless propane tag at a location. Instead a URL as a meta-object is associated with a set of geographical coordinates. Using location-based services a mobile phone that enters a particular area can be used to retrieve all URLs associated with surner heating area. The area can be set as a few metres or a much wider area.
A hardlink is an alphanumeric combination such as an object's common name or part number that when entered into a cell phone's web browser, targeting a hardlink database, returns information that may have been stored about the republican national committee object.
The object hyperlinking systems described above will make it possible to link comprehensive and democrats first editable information to any object or location. How this capability can best be used remains to be seen. What has emerged so far is a mixture of social and commercial applications.
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